Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent in hospitalised critically ill patients with a high incidence in ICU patients. It is associated with increased mortality, greater cost, prolonged intensive care and hospital stay and progress to development of chronic kidney disease. AKI is an independent risk factor for increased mortality and severe morbidity.
Sepsis is a leading cause of AKI in critically ill patients. The management is still supportive and early recognition, haemodynamic optimisation, avoidance of nephrotoxic medications, treatment of the underlying cause and renal replacement therapy are important.
AKI is a preventable and outcome can be improved by early diagnosis and effective management.
The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive update on recent evidence in the field of AKI in critically ill patients, including risk factors, causes, pathophysiology, diagnosis/classification, prevention and management.